Using digital intelligence to identify lines of principle stress in a structure.
For the competition-winning design of the new Greenland National Gallery the RCD group developed a reinforced concrete slab solution that looked original and striking while also being more energy efficient than a conventional reinforced concrete flat slab. The engineering design was based on extensive research into mapping stress flows through flat plate structures, using advanced digital tools. The concept uses new research into the actual stress flows through a flat plate structure and also revisits work from the early 1950’s by the great Pier Luigi Nervi.
Pier Luigi Nervi famously expressed the lines of principle stress in the reinforced concrete floor slabs of the Gatti Wool Factory. When he analysed the stress vector field, he used an intuitive approach based on trial and error.
The engineering team wrote a computer script to map stress flow pathways accurately and comprehensively. By mapping the principle stress vector field of a flat concrete plate with support locations based on the positions of columns in the building frame they were able to design a precisely calibrated slab, where slab thickness varies according to the structural requirement. When the stress flow paths are expressed in reinforced concrete they create elegant, curved, ribbed structures.