Ramboll Computational Design Team members, Ruth Norman-Johnson, Paul Jeffries and Emily Scoones, have been featured in Building Magazine’s Digital Champions article. They had the opportunity to share their views and anticipations on digitalisation within the construction sector.
This is the first in a series of posts covering topics raised during the Q&A session following my recent talk on Computational Design at the Institution of Structural Engineers. As the talk itself was some while ago my recollection of the questions may be inexact and the answers may have been improved significantly by hindsight and additional thinking time, so I do not guarantee an exact transcript, but I have tried to remain true to the spirit of both the question and response I gave on the night.
The first topic is something that I get asked about a lot; the role that emerging A.I. techniques will play in the industry:
“There is a lot of talk at the moment about Artificial Intelligence and it seems that its use is going to revolutionise a lot of industries. Do you think we will see an A.I. revolution in Structural Engineering?”
‘Artificial Intelligence’ is one of those things that has a lot more utility as a marketing term than it does as a technical term. It is applied to algorithms that give the outside appearance of mimicing certain aspects of human intelligence, but beyond that there isn’t really all that much that sets them apart from any other algorithm and quite where you choose to draw the line between ‘A.I.’ and ‘non-A.I.’ algorithms is a bit fuzzily defined.
So, there are two questions worth considering. Firstly; will something called ‘artificial intelligence’ revolutionise structural engineering? In the long run almost certainly yes, if only because the term is used so broadly. We can speculate about what that might look like, but because this technology hasn’t necessarily been invented yet we risk straying into the world of science fiction. So the second, more interesting, question is perhaps; will any of the artificial intelligence techniques we currently have access to revolutionise structural engineering? The answer to this is a bit more complicated.
Certain older ‘A.I.’ techniques have already made their way to being standard parts of the computational designer’s toolkit – most notably genetic algorithms and other optimisation methods. In RCD we utilise such techniques regularly and find them very useful (though we are, admittedly, somewhat atypical in this).
However, these days when people talk about ‘A.I.’ they are most often referring to machine learning and in particular Artificial Neural Networks. This class of A.I. algorithms takes (very loose) inspiration from the way that organic brains operate by simulating a network of ‘neurons’ which pass signals between one another and which ‘learn’ by adjusting the weightings of the connections between each pairing to tune the response given to particular stimulus.
This is great at engaging our imaginations (“There’s a brain in my computer!”) and they are capable of some truly impressive feats which go well beyond what we expect from a computer. However, it should be pointed out that there are still some pretty substantial differences between the way these ANNs work and the way the human brain works and the degree to which they exhibit genuinely intelligent behaviour is often overstated. These are ultimately statistical methods and as with any other algorithm they have strengths and weaknesses.
Broadly speaking; they are quite general and have a wide range of applicability to many different problem domains, but tend to be much less computationally efficient than any algorithm designed specifically for that task (not least because they must undergo a lengthy process of training before they are of any use at all). Their true value, therefore, lies in applications for which no more direct method of solution exists; computer vision, object recognition and so on being the prime examples.
Engineering is fairly well codified and rules-based, and therefore there are more direct methods available in a lot of cases. There are also a couple of drawbacks to Neural Net methods which limit their application to engineering problems.
Firstly, their quality relies heavily on the dataset on which they are trained. This can be a problem even in image manipulation applications, when there are millions of photographs easily available. Engineering datasets are much harder to come by and tend to be much less complete. A BIM model might record that a project used a 6m x 9m column grid, but it won’t record the discussion with the architect which drove that decision. Without a clearly-defined record of the inputs and outputs of a process, it is difficult for Neural Nets to discern the relationships between them.
The second, more significant issue is that Neural Nets do not show their working. As engineers, we need not only to produce designs but also to be able to justify those designs. The output of a neural net will be the result of thousands of different variables spread all throughout the network; it is very difficult to trace back through that mess and understand *why* it has done any particular thing, beyond the broadest answer that it did it because you have shown it examples which looked something like that in the past. At present, these systems are capable only of blind imitation, not of reasoning through or rationalising their choices.
This is not to say that these techniques have no uses in the structural design process. Far from it; there are dozens of potential applications. We ourselves have utilised them in the past to help to categorise different design configurations, and are investigating their use to help ‘short-cut’ generative optimisation processes and understand client preferences. There are doubtless plenty of other opportunities for these kinds of techniques to fill in the gaps where more rigidly-defined algorithms struggle. Outside of structures, Ramboll’s SiteSee initiative is applying machine learning techniques to data collected via drones to help with mining site restoration. On a larger scale, I suspect their most wide-scale utilisation in AEC will come in maintenance; performing continuous inspections of built assets and identifying when human intervention is likely to be required. Some steps have already been taken in that direction.
But in the midst of all this potential it is important not to be carried away by the hype. If I seem to be focusing overly on the negative aspects here it is only because I would like to counterbalance the breathless uncritical excitement with which this technology is often promoted. It is important to remember that neural nets are only one cog in the machine, rather than the all-in-one panacea that they are sometimes presented as. They have a role to play in digitalising the industry, but that role is part of a broader tapestry consisting of a range of different algorithmic approaches appropriate to different tasks. So, I wouldn’t recommend focusing exclusively on A.I. as the means to revolutionise the industry (and suggest retaining a healthy skepticism of anybody trying to use the term as a selling point). There are plenty of other computational techniques which are both more accessible and more immediately applicable and we as an industry are still a long way off realising the full potential of even the most basic of these. The revolution which is already underway is the use of digital and algorithmic design techniques to augment and enhance human intelligence. That human intelligence is still key, and where we choose to supplement it with the artificial kind it needs to be done with full consideration of the applicability and limitations of the technology.
A Unity Developer to help with creating slick, user-friendly front-end tools and visualisations.
A Design Technologist to help with building smart algorithms to embody design intelligence and using and customising the software to meet the needs of particular projects. (Ideally you would already be comfortable with Unity as well, but if you’re good enough at the other stuff we can train you up in that!)
If any (or all) of those sound like something you could do then click the links above to find out more and apply!
The recording of the lecture ‘Digital Transformation: Computational Design at Scale’ which I gave recently at the IStructE in London has now been posted to the institution’s YouTube channel:
The lecture starts with a basic summary of the core principles and philosophy of Computational Design and builds up through project examples to show how these techniques can be scaled to different types and sizes of projects (including a sneak-peak of our SiteSolve design platform). It ends with a set of practical tips and ‘first steps’ to help you to upskill and integrate these technologies into your design practice.
Unfortunately (though understandably) this recording does not include the Q&A session after the lecture, which is a shame as there were many interesting questions (and a few challenges) and the discussion touched on a variety of areas including the computational skills ‘generation gap’, the role of institutions, the application of artificial intelligence and the commercialisation of software.
A lot of these are things that I frequently get asked about but which are not discussed much in the literature, so I’m going to take this as an excuse to, over the next few posts on this blog, pick out some of these questions and write up my thoughts on them. Check back over the next couple of weeks as these go live.
As part of the London Design Festival, Ramboll has collaborated with Steuart Padwick to create a 9m-high CLT head on London’s South Bank. The idea of “Head Above Water” is to raise awareness for mental health and encourage people to express how they are feeling. When we heard about this great opportunity we could not wait to get involved and help however we could.
End Image Credit: Daniel Shearing
In order to realise this project in the short timescale, a digital workflow was required. This two-part work flow ensured we were able to create models for CFD analysis and for fabrication. This was a nice example of a project where parametric design could be used to facilitate fast iterative design to ensure a solution was achieved.
The overall head geometry had been moulded in clay by Steuart in his London studio. The clay head was 3d-scanned to generate a mesh which we could use as a base for our parametric model. The heavy model meant reducing the mesh was paramount (at least during the design iteration phase) to be able to instantly see the implication of changing a parameter. By creating cutting planes, the distance of which could be controlled by sliders, we were able to create the slab and wall outlines, which we could extrude to create slab and wall solids. This model could then be sent to CFD analysis to understand the forces that would be exerted on the existing pier due to the wind.
The creation of a fabrication model in Revit was the next workflow to develop. Rather than transfer the geometry from Rhino through to Revit it was faster for us to step away from Grasshopper and move into dynamo to create a similar script/graph. Once the geometry was settled we were able to update all the parameters, and use the non-reduced mesh, to create the fabrication model in Revit.
This project was the accumulation of work by many parties. It was a fantastic job to work on, and our congratulations must go to the whole team. Find out more about Ramboll’s involvement here.
The opportunities brought to the construction sector by emerging digital design technology are more than a process to improve our traditional workflow – when we all work together, technology can help us unlock land for the community, manage technical risks from the start, and realise the true value of our land.
Our land resource is getting ever more complex. The community need for development is increasing, but available land is getting ever more constrained and complex. Productivity is low, profit margins are squeezed and ultimately, land is often deemed unattractive, or even unviable.
The new London Plan drives a design-led approach to determining site capacity. Using this approach, the target development density is not only a factor of the context of the development, but also of the key site-specific challenges and opportunities which could impact a particular plot. This is an exciting change in mindset; as the available brownfield land gets ever more complex, a constraints-led approach is our only option to maximise land use.
Digital design technology can help drive this. Through smart integrated platforms and data mining, we can have real technical input at our fingertips, when we are making those critical early stage decisions. Through generative design and artificial intelligence, we can explore infinitely more options in the time it used to take us to consider just one. This moves us further, faster, to find the viable solution that unlocks the land by responding to key risks. On top of this, we can have streamlined information available in real time, to assess cost and buildability challenges with real design information rather than assumption.
Working in this way allows us to identify options with maximum potential, and critically, to identifying unviable schemes quickly, so we can fail fast and fail cheap. This is a rethink on our traditional design process, which is critical to increase productivity in our industry and give the community the developments we desperately need.
We’re adopting this mindset at Ramboll – find out more at our website here.
RCD recently teamed up with some of our tall building specialists for a two-day hack on high rise digitalisation. The result was a new parametric tool for the exploration of tall buildings. The tool draws on the framework of our Dynamic Masterplanning toolkit to enable the rapid generation and evaluation of tower design options to a number of engineering criteria. We can adjust a variety of different control parameters and see in real-time the impacts of those changes on the key performance indicators of the building. This gives us the power to rapidly explore design options live with the client and other members of the design team.
What makes this tool unique is not the geometry generation (which is relatively straightforward) but the amount of embedded engineering expertise which allows the tool to produce results with the benefit of expert judgement. What makes it useful is that while the relationships between some inputs and outputs can be intuited, others are difficult to predict without calculation. For example, different combinations of parameters will require different numbers and sizes of lifts, which then has major knock-on effects on the size and shape of the core, which in turn affects available floor area and structural stiffness (which may the necessitate further changes). Calculating all of this by hand could take a long time and would typically involve several different specialists. By automating the process adjustments and iteration can be performed near-instantly with data on the potential impacts of design decisions available immediately. This allows for the various considerations of tall building design to be easily understood and balanced to enable a holistic approach to finding the optimal design solution.
For our office Christmas tree this year we decided to do something a bit different and build our own. We also needed a new centrepiece for our London reception area after the Leadership Bridge moved to our new Birmingham offices. The design team behind that earlier project was reconvened to tackle this new challenge and once again RCD took responsibility for the geometric design.
In this tutorial, I will provide a very simple demonstration of the use of Grasshopper, a visual scripting environment embedded into the 3D modelling package Rhinoceros and a very useful computational design tool. This example is intended to give a brief overview of how the software works to people with no prior exposure to it and explain the core theoretical principles. Some basic prior knowledge of Rhino itself is assumed, however (i.e. you need to at least be familiar with the general interface – this video will cover most of what you need).
A Load Take-Down is a procedure frequently performed by structural engineers to assess the amount of loading carried by the columns of a building into its foundations. It is an important early-stage analysis necessary to inform the choice of column layout and foundation system, but it is also a notoriously tedious and time-consuming process that is regarded as something of a ‘rite of passage’ for young engineers to endure. Continue reading “RCD Tadpole (Ramboll Load Take-Down Tool)”
Salamander 3, a new structural modelling and interoperability tool developed by RCD lead Paul Jeffries, is now in open beta and available to download from Food4Rhino. The tool adds the ability to model structural elements such as beams, slabs, nodes etc. inside Rhino and for this data to be exchanged with analysis packages (at present, Autodesk Robot and Oasys GSA). Continue reading “Salamander 3 now in open beta”
On Tuesday 16th May Paul Jeffries will be delivering a public lecture at Imperial College London entitled ‘Emergence: The development and future of computational design’. The talk will be held in Room 201 of the Skempton Building and begins at 18:30. All are welcome to attend.
For the 2017 Ramboll Leadership Conference in Copenhagen, which took place on the 22nd and 23rd of January, RCD was involved in a collaboration between the Transport and Buildings departments to design and construct a ‘bridge’ installation between their respective stands. We had a little over a month to develop and manufacture the design so timescales were tight and we had several key criteria to consider – the bridge was to support a model train running between the two stands (in reference to the Holmestrand Mountain Station project), it needed to be light and easily demountable enough for us to carry from London to Copenhagen, build in an afternoon, break down in an hour and then return back to London (for later re-assembly in our home office). We also wanted it to form an interactive part of the conference rather than merely being a static display piece.
We approached the project the same way we would any other – pulling together a team with relevant expertise, brainstorming ideas, analysing and developing them. For the interactive element, we realised that business cards made an ideal impromptu craft material and were one of the few things we could rely on most of the attendees to be bringing with them. The decision was thus made to allow people at the conference to leave their business card, folded into a specific 3D form, as part of the bridge’s cladding. Continue reading “Ramboll Leadership Conference 2017 Bridge”
From January 2017, Imperial College London will be running an evening course on Parametric Engineering, co-taught by RCD lead Paul Jeffries. The course will cover the application of Rhino and Grasshopper for computational design within an engineering context and is open to anybody in full time education or academic employment. To apply contact Simply Rhino.
If you’ve arrived at this blog, you will probably have had some exposure to the concept of ‘computational design’. You may also have heard some of the related terms that fall under this heading – ‘parametric design’, ‘algorithmic design’, ‘generative design’ and so on. As computational design is still a relatively young and evolving field the meanings of these terms can be a little vague and are used by different practitioners in different ways. This article presents the vision of computational design that we have in Ramboll and the role that we see it having in the future of the industry. This is what *we* mean by computational design. Continue reading “What is Computational Design?”
Building Structures Director Stephen Melville was recently invited to the Digital Design-themed Henderson Colloquium.
The aim of the annual event is to bring together a select group of industry experts to discuss a subject of topical importance with a view of making recommendations to the engineering and construction industry.
The invitation to attend the roundtable reflects the growing perception of Ramboll as digital design and thought leaders within this cutting-edge field. Other guests in attendance represented firms including Arup, Foster+Partners, Zaha Hadid Architects and Laing O’Rourke.
IABSE has held the two-day colloquium annually since it began in 1975. The event sees a specially invited group of invited guests taking part in a topical discussion of a structural engineering theme, with each participant making a presentation which is designed to stimulate a lively debate.
A summary of discussions and recommendations made for industry will be announced at the IABSE conference in Madrid this September. Whilst the recommendations are confidential until then, Ramboll’s involvement in the event (including a presentation on ‘Meta Parametric modelling’) and debates demonstrate that our focus on importance of design using digital tools and strong philosophical approach to the subject position us as leaders in the rapidly evolving and specialised discipline.
Kristjan Nielsen of the RCD team has recently returned from Hong Kong, where he helped run the SG2014 workshop cluster entitled: The Bearable Lightness of Being. The goal of the cluster was to design and construct a flexible, light-weight and optimised pavilion, through the use of grasshopper plug-ins Karamba and Octopus.
More information on the cluster can be found here.
The RCD team have recently had a paper accepted at the AAG Conference, held this year in London on 18th-22nd September. The paper describes the work done by RCD during the Ongreening Pavilion project, constructed in March this year. In the paper, the form-finding process of a bending active shell structure is described, as well as documenting how the assembly method was influenced by real-time structural analysis using Karamba (plug-in for Grasshopper).
More information about the conference can be found here.
RCD and Ramboll Italy have assisted in the geometric tiling of the Vanke Pavilion, by Libeskind Studio for Milan Expo 2015. The pavilion’s doubly curved exterior will be clad in bespoke ceramic tiles of identical size and shape. In order to achieve this, we developed an algorithm similar to the Chebyshev Net approach to generate the layout and minimise the amount of special tiles required.
RCD are currently working with KAAN Architecten on PLANTA, a new Art Museum to be situated in Lleida, Spain. The building is a reinforced concrete single storey structure, partially buried underground.
As part of the ongoing design, we produced an optimisation study for the 200x70m concrete waffle roof slab in order to improve its efficiency. A bending stress field informs both the subdivision of an orthogonal waffle layout and the varying of its depth to generate a suitable distribution of structural material.
The Ramboll UK Cambridge office have constructed a small timber shell for the Papworth Trust, a local charity that works with those who have learning disabilities.
RCD assisted by generating the plate shell geometry, using the planar remeshing method previously seen on the TRADA Pavilion. The method allows doubly curved shells to be constructed with planar elements, utilising the 3-plate principle to allow a hinged connection whilst maintaining the rigidity of the shell.
RCD’s work on the intelligent modelling of voids in the stems and canopies of the Oxford Brookes School of Architecture Rain Pavilion has been accepted as a paper to the eCAADe 2014 conference in November. The paper Populating surfaces with holes using particle repulsion based on scalar fields will be presented at the annual gathering at the University of Northumbria and contributes to the overall theme of fusion; data integration at its best.
Details of the conference can be found here
The 2014 EcoBuild exhibition at London’s Excel centre opened this week and an egg-shaped plywood pavilion designed for OnGreening’s stand at the event is showcasing the work of Ramboll Computational Design (RCD).
OnGreening is a new web-based platform devoted to the research and profiling of green building technologies. The organisation required a pavilion and lecture theatre that would make them stand out from the crowd at the world’s largest event for sustainable design at the ExCel centre in London.
The look of the structure is intended to echo Ongreening’s goal of capturing and filtering the world’s knowledge of green data. The pavilion has already attracted a lot of attention.
The pavilion’s egg-like geometry was generated using form-finding techniques pioneered on previous RCD projects. The structure itself is unique in that it uses thin 6.5mm birch plywood timber laths which are bent into shape, creating a so-called ‘bending active’ structure which is incredibly stiff and acts like a monocoque, enabling the shell to carry most of the stresses.
The timber laths are aligned along geodesic lines between pre-seeded generation points set out using a parametric model. The primary geodesic members are restrained by secondary laths of the same narrow and thin profile of plywood with a simple bolted connection. This method allowed the use of straight and short length pieces of timber, making it more practical to purchase and build compared with other similar looking structures.
Further details about OnGreening and their work are available on their website.
Ramboll Computational Design has been appointed to provide structural and in addition to computational design services on a pavilion to be built in Milan for EXPO 2015. We will work with Studio Daniel Libeskind and VANKE, China’s largest residential developer, to design and build their Pavilion.
By using generative modelling and coding techniques, the computational design team (RCD) digitally sliced and analysed the pavilion’s structural design, as well as providing the panelling geometry for the pavilion’s exterior which will be covered in bespoke ceramic tiles. By digitally rationalising the façade surface, the complex pattern has been optimised to enable it to be realised from identically sized tiles.
The corporate pavilion will be three to four storeys tall. Containing a bamboo structure and Chinese artworks, the pavilion will be dismantled and rebuilt in China after the expo, echoing the sustainability theme of the Italian exposition. Construction will start in May this year ahead of the exposition.
RCD have collaborated with the staff and students of the Architecture and Fine Arts departments at Oxford Brookes University on a striking new urban intervention/sculptural pavilion at the entrance of the new Abercrombie building. The structure compromises 20 extremely tall and slender steel ‘trees’ that support a thin folded steel plate ‘leaf’ or canopy. The overall impression is that of a wooded glade where light is filtered through varying diameter circular voids in the canopies and the stems bathing the visitors to the installation in a dappled light. RCD were an integral part of the conceptual design process following the initial student competition.
The extreme slenderness of the stems (only 89mm diameter and 6000mm tall) required extensive input from Ramboll’s fluid dynamics team in Copenhagen and fatigue analysis by our Advanced Engineering team in Southampton to model the complex wind interactions in order to prevent dynamic failure and to keep the structure as slim as possible. The canopies are 2500mm at their widest but only need very thin steel plate (2mm) because of the inherent stiffness provided by folds and creases in the form.
We developed routines to allow the circular voids to intelligently self organize on the surface of the stems and canopies in relation to the level of stress. High stress in a particular area meant that voids were fewer in number. Dampening factors were built into the initial coding to ensure that the overall impression of the holes was a gradual fading rather than unsightly bunching. The work will be extended to include our work on integrating a lightweight finite element solver within the automatic void generation and movement process in order to give more control and instant feedback on structural performance. A technical paper will be presented at a future paper conference.
The TRADA Pavilion project from 2012 used numerical form-finding to derive its shape. By using shape functions to apply a dynamic load at each node, a continuous funicular (compression only) shell was found.
The KREOD Pavilion has won a coveted Structural Award at the prestigious ceremony at The Brewery in London. The awards are held annually by the Institution of Structural Engineers (IStructE) to celebrate excellence in structural engineering both in the UK and internationally. The KREOD Pavilion won the Small Project award.
KREOD Pavilion is a sustainable, portable, demountable and multi-functional indoor or outdoor exhibition space that was launched at Peninsular Square near the O2 and Emirates Airline at North Greenwich in London in 2012. Pavilion Architecture led the project.
KREOD’s organic form is inspired by nature, closely resembling a seed. It sits on castors allowing the structure to be moved and rearranged into different forms. Ramboll’s Computational Design (RCD) team contributed to the conceptual design of the pavilion, helping to translate the concept into a rational and buildable form using high technology and imaginative engineering – a creative design led by constraints on cost and appearance.
The team developed digital design techniques to model and shape the pavilion leading to a more efficient and buildable form. They also made innovative use of a reciprocal jointing system that can be fully dismantled and flat packed. The project saw the first use of Kebony a structural element, which required the Computational Design team to embark on a programme of material testing at Cambridge University.
The judging panel praised the KREOD Pavilion for its pioneering approach to creating a functional and demountable enclosure in a striking yet sustainable way:
“Once in a while developing new techniques and processes, coupled with imaginative and perceptive engineering skills, allow the realisation of a design that previously would not have been feasible or financially viable. Though temporary by nature, the KREOD Pavilion is a seminal structure, demonstrating the possibilities of the exoskeletal approach to permanent habitable buildings of the future”.
As part of the Bartlett School of Architecture Plexus series of lectures John Harding of the Ramboll Computational Design team spoke about structural form-finding at RCD. The talk focussed on how computation can help to bridge the gap between architecture and engineering at the early stages of projects where there is most to be gained.
The Bartlett Plexus series is an initiative to bring together the creative talent of different disciplines to share techniques, solve problems and build networks of collaboration. The events will happen every other month inviting young designers, architects, engineers, programmers, game designers and visual artists.
Ramboll Computational Design (RCD) has been selected to design modular toilet buildings for schools throughout India.
The client is a joint venture between a UK-based investor who specialises in funding female entrepreneurs throughout the developing world and NVH Technology, an award-winning entrepreneurial provider of sanitation services in India.
The client plans to expand their range of commercial products into toilet facilities for schools, and has appointed Ramboll to provide design services. The client approached Ramboll Computational Design after seeing RCD’s presentation on the Trada Pavilion, given at the Ecobuild exhibition in London’s Excel Centre earlier this year.
This is an exciting project for Ramboll as it broadens our product design expertise and capabilities in design for mass manufacture. It also provides an opportunity to create a significant beneficial impact on improved sanitation and achieving universal education through improving the standard of school facilities. The United Nations estimates that up to 2.5 billion people worldwide lack access to basic sanitation and reforming this situation is a United Nation’s Millennium Development Goal.
As a commercial venture, Ramboll have worked with the client to develop a unique fee structure which is partially based on royalties gained through the licensing of Ramboll’s intellectual property. Additionally, a custom scope for product design work was prepared and tailored to the client’s particular brief.
John Harding of the RCD team will be presenting our work on the Trada pavilion at the International Associate for Shell and Spatial Structures symposium in Wroclaw, Poland on the 23rd September 2013. The talk, simply titled The TRADA Pavilion – A Timber Plate Funicular Shell will be given as part of the session dedicated to Structural Morphology – Faceted and origami structures.
The Rambøll Computational Design (RCD) team were invited to help design a number of installations at the world-famous Burning Man Festival in Nevada, USA this year by Westminster University School of Architecture.
Burning Man is an annual event held in the Black Rock Desert in northern Nevada. It takes place annually beginning on the last Monday in August, and ending on the first Monday in September to coincide with the Labor Day national holiday. The event takes its name from the ritual burning of a large wooden effigy on the Saturday evening and is described as an experiment in community, art, radical self-expression and radical self-reliance.
The week-long gathering of counter culture takes place in August, giving the team a very tight programme in which to design three climbable sculptures, two recursive ‘fractal’ forms, and a double curved and cantilevering timber shelter, and then help organise their digital fabrication.
In recognition of RCD’s recent experience of collaborative digital modelling of unusual forms, combined with the hands-on production of the Belvedere festival sculpture in New York and Trada Pavilion in the UK, our team were invited by tutors at the Westminster University School of Architecture to assist the student team that won the international design competition earlier this year.
The KREOD Pavilion has secured a place on the 2013 Structural Awards shortlist. The Structural Awards are held annually by the IStructE to celebrate international excellence in structural engineering. KREOD has been shortlisted for the Small Projects award. The full shortlist can be found on the Structural Awards website.
Ramboll Computational Design have conceived and created a weave shell structure from strips of Perspex to transform the foyer of our London studio. The unique doubly-curved triaxial mesh shell installation explores how engineering, digital fabrication, and imagination can fill the boundaries of the space. It inherits the tradition of innovation and material exploration from our 2011 Foyer 1.0 timber principal curvature shell but extends the automatic form finding and associative modelling in new directions. The form has been generated using our self coded dynamic relaxation techniques and the cutting patterns for the flat perspex elements are automatically generated from the Grasshopper model.
The structure will built by early September in time to feature in the London Design Festival 2013.
Ramboll engineers have conceived the Fitzrovia Chalkboard for the Great Titchfield Street Festival as part of London Festival of Architecture 2013. One of a number of events planned for the month long festival, the inaugural street project will promote positive change in the area, transforming Great Titchfield Street – from Mortimer Street up to Langham and Foley Street – into a pedestrianised haven for the day.
Fitzrovia Chalkboard is a temporary installation that creates a single point of display for collective messages in the local community – a structure that is a massive writing surface for all to contribute. It is inspired by how local, independent businesses rely on the traditional chalkboard as a means to advertise and mark their place on the street, in a time when technology offers many alternatives. Fitzrovia Chalkboard is designed using such recent advances and the public are invited inside the structure to view its innovative construction.
Inspired by Ramboll’s recent Trada Pavillion, the structure comprises of 47 birch plywood panels joined together by steel hinges. It is designed using the Tangent Plane Intersection (TPI) methods developed by Ramboll Computational Design to break down any double curved form into flat planar elements. Exact cutting patterns for digital fabrication are then automatically generated from the TPI mesh. All panels are numbered sequentially and this approach ensures that all panels fit together to create the form in a quick assembly process.
RCD collaborated with Architects and light installation artists Cinemod on the design for the RIBA organised Radio 4 Listening Pod competition, a brief to create a portable and memorable looking recording studio.
Christened the Geode, the pod was inspired by natural mineral formation and by the TPI mesh surface techniques developed by us on the Trada Pavilion. The TPI mesh enabled the structure to be broken down into small, light and easily transportable plywood and acoustic foam components which could then be slotted together on site by hand. Our entry was not shortlisted but did us give a valuable opportunity to develop the planar intersection modelling techniques further, to build on our knowledge of digital fabrication and to explore new ideas with creative partners.
Our KREOD proejct has been shortlisted for the BCI (British Construction Industry) awards in the Product Design/Innovation category. We are extremely pleased and congratulations to our collaborators Pavilion Architecture without whose vision and tenacity the project would not have moved forward in the way it did. The awards are announced on the 9th October at the Grosvenor House Hotel, London.
Working in collaboration with the staff and students of Oxford Brookes School of Architecture we are prototyping the new Forum sculpture, a 4metres high by 25metres long installation which is to be built within the courtyard of the new Abercrombe building. The structure is to be a series of aluminium plate boxes following the lines of principal curvature along a looping form. By breaking down the surface in this way we are able to simplify the geometry into simple elements folded out of a flat planar shape. More development is needed, particularly of the joints, but we are encouraged by the behaviour so far. The Forum sculpture will be built early Autumn 2013.
Duncan Horswill and Mark Pniewski represented Ramboll Computational Design at the 4th Annual Building Envelopes Asia conference in Singapore on the 17th and 18th April.
The conference is in its fourth year and brings together 25 world class speakers to discuss cost efficient design as well as engineering and material technologies for high performance building envelopes.
Together Duncan and Mark used the work of the team to demonstrate the advantages of a computational approach to the design of complex glass envelopes. The presentation drew on our experience of working with complex architectural geometries on projects such as the Astana National Library in Kazakhstan and the National Holdings HQ building in Abu Dhabi to demonstrate the inherent issues with the application of traditional facade solutions to complex surfaces and how, with the help of computation, we can meet these challenges.
As well as the above case studies we will be presented our latest research which has been developed over the past four years in collaboration with the University of Bath, the EPSRC and AG5 Architects in Copenhagen to develop a digital design strategy which allows the designer to experiment with novel form whilst retaining an underlying engineering and construction logic. This work is at the cutting edge of its field and combines dynamic 3D modelling with genetic programming and analytical tools to create a virtual environment where building forms evolve from the bottom up as a result of the requirements of the designers, client and site.
Harri Lewis and Stephen Melville of the Ramboll Computational Design team presented their paper ‘ TRADA Pavilion – Searching for Innovation and Elegance in Complex Forms Supported by Physical and Software Prototyping’ (authors Harri Lewis, Stephen Melville and John Harding) at the the Prototyping Architecture conference at the Building Centre, London. An e-book of the conference papers can be downloaded here
The KREOD, a temporary exhibition space designed by Pavilion Architecture and Ramboll Computational Design, has won the best temporary structure at the 2013 Surface Design Awards.
The Surface Design Awards recognise progressive design and the use of innovative surfaces in design projects, both in the UK and internationally. The awards also highlight the wealth of creativity and innovation in the industry.
KREOD is a sustainable, portable, demountable and multi-functional indoor or outdoor exhibition space. The project was led by Pavilion Architecture with its organic form inspired by nature, resembling a seed.
The structure sits on castors, allowing the structure to be moved and rearranged into different forms and spaces to create a versatile event space with practical considerations for transportation, storage, disassembly and reassembly.
The structure is made up of three reciprocal timber gridshells that implement a number of geometrical optimisation and fabrication algorithms that have not been previously applied to a real structure. The form is a creative response to the need for a building that can be easily erected and subsequently demounted by hand, uses Kebony timber – a previously untried material – of a given size and limited thickness, and had to be delivered within a strict budget.
Using digital technology to its fullest, KREOD was delivered in a collaborative manner with each member of the design team understanding the innovative work and challenges of the other contributors and designed accordingly.
The awards were presented at the Surface Design Show, which took place at London’s Business Design Centre.
John Harding and Harri Lewis of the Ramboll Computational Design team recently gave a talk on ‘Finding Form: Embedding materiality in Computational Design’ at the Materials, Tectonics and Structures Colloquium at the University of Nottingham School of Architecture. The talk was well received and generated a lively debate.
Working with Architects Innovation Imperative, Ramboll Computation Design have helped with digital fabrication advice and structural analysis of a small and potentially adaptable ‘garden office’. Tetra Shed is a free standing single-storey timber structure designed to create an architecturally striking and comfortable space that can be internally adapted to suit the unique requirements of every client whilst maintaining the same structure. Expected uses are as a home office, extended living space or commercial applications.
The structural frame builds upon the expertise Ramboll Computational Design have developed in the CNC fabrication and jointing of thin ply sections on the London Funnel and Trada Pavilion projects
In this unique project the client, digital film distributor Arts Alliance, wanted a lightweight, easily transportable venue to house its new performance of ID: Identity of the Soul on a worldwide tour. The brief required a structure that would meet the technical requirements for video projection and surround sound during live performances, as well as accommodating up to 3,500 people without impeding views of the stage. The structure had to be capable of being erected within two weeks and when demounted it had to fit inside a reasonable number of shipping containers for transportation across the world. It also had to be of the highest architectural quality.
Oslo-based practice, Various Architects proposed a dynamic oval form within an inflatable hexagonal PVC outer skin and drum-like fabric roof. Together with specialist contractor ESS, we developed a structural concept that has met the challenge.
After evaluating a number of different structural options an arrangement of radiating spokes, akin to the wheel of a bicycle, formed by tension cables running between inner and outer steel ring beams supported on steel lattice columns was chosen. The resulting structure is ultra-light, easily transportable and quick to assemble, whilst providing a large, clear space for the theatre area.
The exterior skin is self-supporting and consists of a web of inflatable fabric tubes coated in PVC, with translucent inflatable pillows as infill. To help generate the hexagonal pattern of the pneumatic skin, Generative Components software was used to parametrically control the size and scale of the hexagonal tessellations.
The Arts Alliance theatre is believed to be the largest mobile entertainment venue in the world measuring 90m by 40m on plan and in 2008 won the Spark Award.
Rambøll Computational Design (RCD) and artists Loop.ph have completed the design and erection of a 6m tall carbon fibre and perspex arch structure for Belvedere Vodka’s RED street party in New York, USA.
Taking over Manhattan’s Meatpacking district with a dramatic light show and music, the event was a one of a number of international celebrations in the run up to World AIDS Day on 1st December. World AIDS Day was first ever global health day, providing an opportunity to unite in the fight against HIV, show support for people living with it and commemorate those who have died from the disease.
Guests watched the area become illuminated in red against a backdrop of 20ft white neon trees to helpBelvedere Vodka and (RED)™ raise awareness of the campaign to eliminate the transmission of the HIV virus from mothers to their babies and achieve the first AIDS-free generation born by 2015.
The teams worked intensively for a month and collaborated on parametric 3d models in order to develop a form initially based on a flat pattern of 85 number, thin carbon fibre rods which was then warped and twisted to give the shape a natural stiffness. Perspex ribs linked the carbon rods together to ensure that the sculpture acts as coherent entity. The carbon fibre rods acted as natural conductors powering LED lights fixed in the corporate logo of Belvedere Vodka. Rambøll Computational Design provided structural engineering, 3d modelling, construction advice and practical assistance.
Just an hour before the production deadline, the Loop.ph and RCD teams finished assembling the structure and were able to pivot it into its final position. Shortly afterwards the New York public filled the square off Gansevoort and Hudson Street, milling around and under the arch, for a set by electro-funk DJs Chromeo to promote the cause.
Both the Trada and KREOD pavilions have been shortlisted for the Surface Design awards in the temporary structures category. The awards are announced on the 7th February 2013. Full details can be found here
A full size trial erection of one of the plywood timber legs of the Trada Expo pavilion will be exhibited at the Prototyping Architecture Exhibition in Nottingham starting 17th October.
The trial was undertaken to test the stiffness of the reciprocal support panels, the ease of erection, quality of finish and the effect of adding edge stiffeners upon the overall performance of the structure under accidental load. It proved an extremely useful exercise, validating the time and effort expended in ordering and building the test leg. It will be accompanied in the exhibition by a 1:10 scale model of the pavilion, built to assess the potential modes of failure.
Ramboll’s Trada Pavilion, a plywood structure inspired by the efficient curved forms of Frei Otto and Heinz Isler, was unveiled to the public for the first time this week at the Timber Expo 2012. The exhibition is the premier show in the UK for all those involved in the timber sector.
Trada commissioned Ramboll’s computational design team to design the timber pavilion, which was the focal point of the Timber Expo 2012 stand and one of the biggest draws at the exhibition. After this exhibition, the sculpture will showcased again on TRADA’s stand at the 2013 Ecobuild exhibition.
The team set themselves the challenge of creating a planar three-valent mesh approach for the double curved surface, rather than the conventional triangular mesh. A hexagonal mesh has the advantage of fewer connections and greater structural efficiency, but requires coding from scratch and a great deal of research. The final design utilizes techniques from the computer game industry coupled with engineering intuition.
Based on the team’s previous research into funicular form finding, the design uses weak springs to automatically generate a zero bending moment surface, enveloping a large trade stand and allowing the public to circulate underneath. It uses a mesh of thin plywood plates joined via simple expressed hinged pin connections. The structure was modelled with the extensive use of generative 3D systems with the output linked to a CNC router.
The KREOD (formerly known as Dpod) pavilion, located at the North Greenwich Olympic site, has now been completed – a significant event as it marks the culmination of a challenging design and fabrication process.
KREOD is a sustainable, portable, demountable and multi-functional indoor or outdoor exhibition space that will be installed in multiple locations within London. The project is led by Pavilion Architecture with its organic form inspired by nature, resembling a seed.
KREOD will sits on castors allowing the structure to be moved and rearranged into different forms and spaces to create a versatile event space with practical considerations for transportation, storage, disassembly and reassembly.
The structure, which has taken some time to come to fruition, is made up of three reciprocal timber gridshells that implement a number of geometrical optimisation and fabrication algorithms that have not been previously applied to a real structure. The form is a creative response to the need for a building that can be easily erected and subsequently demounted by hand, uses Kebony timber – a previously untried material – of a given size and limited thickness, and had to be delivered within a strict budget.
Using digital technology to its fullest, KREOD has been delivered in a collaborative manner with each member of the design team understanding the innovative work and challenges of the other contributors and designing accordingly.
KREOD will be launched and unveiled to the media today at its current site, adjacent to the North Greenwich Arena in East London, where it will remain for six weeks before being moved to its next site.
Stephen Melville of Ramboll’s Computational Design team has been invited to speak at the Den Kloke Tegning (The Smart Drawing) in Oslo on 25th October 2012. Details are here: http://www.denkloketegning.no/
John Harding of the RCD team together with Sam Joyce, Paul Shepherd and Chris Williams of the University of Bath has been selected to present a paper on Thinking Topologically at Early Stage Parametric Design at the Advances in Architectural Geometry conference in Paris, September 27-30.
John Harding’s current EngD topic looks into the inflexibility of parametric modelling software for the early stage of design. By using techniques in genetic programming (GP), a new way of working with parametric models is proposed. The idea was recently published at the Advances in Architectural Geometry Conference in Paris. Abstract:
“Parametric modelling tools have allowed architects and engineers to explore complex geometries with relative ease at the early stage of the design process. Building designs are commonly created by authoring a visual graph representation that generates building geometry in model space. Once a graph is constructed, design exploration can occur by adjusting metric sliders either manually or automatically using optimization algorithms in combination with multiobjective performance criteria. In addition, qualitative aspects such as visual and social concerns may be included in the search process. The authors propose that whilst this way of working has many benefits if the building type is already known, the inflexibility of the graph representation and its top-down method of generation are not well suited to the conceptual design stage where the search space is large and constraints and objectives are often poorly defined. In response, this paper suggests possible ways of liberating parametric modelling tools by allowing changes in the graph topology to occur as well as the metric parameters during building design and optimisation”
A Preprint of the paper can be downloaded here here
Harding, J. and Derix, C., 2011. Associative spatial networks in architectural design: Artificial cognition of space using neural networks with spectral graph theory. In: Design Computing and Cognition ’10. New York: Springer Science and Business Media, pp. 305-323.
Paper presented at the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures Symposium, 2011. Abstract:
“This paper describes a new method for the form-finding of funicular structures in two or three dimensions using a zero-length spring system with dynamic nodal masses. The resulting found geometry consists of purely axial forces under self-weight, with zero bending moment at nodes for both shells and tension net forms. A real-time solver using semi-implicit Euler integration with viscous damping is used to achieve system equilibrium. By using a real-time solver, the designer is able to alter the gravitational field or apply new point loads without re-starting the analysis, leading to an interactive experience in generating design options. The advantages of this method over existing approaches are discussed, with its successful application in a recent real case-study project also shown.”
With input from several Architectural practices in Denmark we are currently working on an application which models and evaluates alternative commercial tower typologies in real-time, giving instant performance feedback during the early design stages where the most important decisions are made but also when the least amount of time is available.
Evaluation criteria include solar gain, heat loss, structural performance, gross floor area, etc… as well as site specific impacts such as shadow casting of neighbouring buildings. This quantitative performance data (which can be numerically optimised) is then combined with the qualitative aspects of design such as aesthetics, social impact, iconography, etc. when making informed decisions in how to progress the design. Different modes of representation including physical models are also implemented to allow integration with existing tried and tested methods of working.
As the design space is so large at concept design stage, modelling variations in different tower ‘types’ has meant us going beyond traditional optimisation of numerical sliders in parametric models, and as a result this has opened up interesting avenues of research.
As part of the feasibility study into the most efficient structure for a dome over two hundred metres in diameter Ramboll Computational Design built upon and refined the techniques developed for the Tallinn Town Hall roof project. A double skin stick and node structure is automatically generated within the semi sphere volume first using the physical properties of a gas and then electrical repulsion to locate every node the same distance apart thus making every structural element the same length. This technique can be adapted to free form shapes and our software also allows for structural feedback and automatic reconfiguration to suit the stress distribution within the frame.
The design for the roof structure of the roof of a National museum in North Africa used our own software to automatically generate efficient funicular forms by dynamic relaxation. The components of the roof were thus uniformly tensioned, use a minimal amount of material and benefit from the visual harmony of repeatable section profiles throughout the space.
Our competition entry for the headquarters and research building of a large corporation in Finland exploited the ideas first postulated by Pier Luigi Nervi at the Gatti Wool factory in 1953. Lines of principle stress are joined to form ribs in the soffit of a reinforced concrete flat slab. The volume of concrete is reduced in comparison to a ‘conventional’ reinforced concrete slab, reducing emboddied carbon and enhancing the thermal mass characteristics. The exposed lines of structure are an expression of the reaction of the frame to external load. We have written our own software to model the stress vector field and resulting downstand ribs.
Our pavilion for Trada is progressing with a deadline of 11 weeks until it has to be built and ready to receive the public. The structure is proving to be incredibly complex for an installation of only 6m by 8m on plan and made even more challenging due to the decision to adopt a planar hexagonal mesh for the double curved surface rather than the conventional triangular mesh. A hexagonal mesh has the advantage of fewer connections and greater structural efficiency but has required coding from scratch and a great deal of research. The final design uses techniques from the computer game industry coupled with a great deal of engineering intuition.
The D_pod pavilion took a step closer to reality recently with the completion of the joint testing at Cambridge University. The pavilion has changed a great deal since the first iteration back in 2010. The mesh is hexagonal rather than quadrilateral meaning a different approach has been needed to the engineering of the joints in order to keep them cheap, to use the material on hand and to give them a ‘furniture like’ appearance. RCD specified a reciprocal joint fixed with hidden bolts, which because the Kebony timber was being used for the first time in a load-bearing structure had to be validated by testing. After several tweaks to the detailing we are glad to report that the connections performed as hoped and it’s straight into construction in time for the opening at the Greenwich Olympic site in June.
As part of his role as a part time Structural Engineering tutor at Oxford Brookes School of Architecture, Stephen Melville will be giving a lecture on Thursday 2nd February on the subject ‘Structuring Architecture’. This is a great opportunity to help convey the principles of collaboration and critical thought in the overlapping space of Architectural Design and Engineering Optimisation.
Stephen Melville recently gave a lecture to the Architectural faculty of the Technical University of Delft on Computational Design and the practical application of the RCD team’s on-going research to live projects and future directions such as urbanism. The lecture was at the invitation of the high rise unit of the school.
With Texere Studios, this was the first time we applied the research into digital urbanism and the science of emergent behaviour. taking the free roaming ponies in the new Forest as a inspiration for a traffic calming measure in a london site we helped with a design which created an inner city farm with sheep instead of horses.
Working with Foster + Partners we developed an in-house routine to automatically determine the optimum three dimensional roof form giving the right degree of internal solar shading in the new villa structures on the coastline of Montenegro.
The application automatically shapes the roofs of villas in relation to the solar shading needed. We were able to prove to Foster + partners the absolute minimum of roof overhang needed for this purpose.
A number of different parametric design tools were then used to set map the structure in an efficient manner on the doubly curved roof form such that the minimum amount of timber was used with the simplest orthogonal joints.
A least energy structure the form being determined by rcd’s own routines together with principle curvature mapping to form efficient framing
The timber members were set out in relation to the lines of principle curvature on the efficient surface. we developed the routines to do this and it enables a simple orthogonal structure to be set out on a complex surface.
Computational analysis of caternaries enhances 3D modelling capability
On a competition submission for Riga Airport, the RCD group used computerised analysis to model the undulating roof structure which was inspired by the catenary form. In the 19th century Gaudi defined the form of his iconic La Sagrada Família by making scale physical models using chains with hanging weights – catenaries.
In the case of the Riga Airport roof the form was found using the modern day computational technique of dynamic relaxation – a digital modelling tool ideal for analysing catenaries. The rationale behind Riga airport’s undulating roof surface was that it should dip where there are check-in desks and rise where natural light is needed to channel into the space below. At one end of the building the roof needed to drape down to the floor to create a sense of enclosure.
The initial geometry was created by the architect using some simple structural rules. Engineers then developed the geometry, maintaining the integrity of the shape but optimising the structural performance significantly using dynamic relaxation.
As a result the final design achieved the architects’ vision for an irregular curving roof while optimising the structure.
An algorithm inspired by electrical behaviour of sub-atomic particles rationalises a complex facade
Both archive and museum, the National Library will be a place for work and study, as well as education and tourism. A place for progress and a place for pleasure. As a national concentration of knowledge about the Kazakh culture and history, geography and demographics, government and presidency, the National Library will be a place for the people to learn about the president, as well as a forum for the president to meet with the people.
The initial scheme for the façade of the new Presential Library envisaged a triangulated diagrid of steel members set out in the form of a Möbius strip. If a ‘traditional’ rectilinear grid pattern were to be adopted for the setting out of the cladding panels then every panel and member length would be different making the façade package extremely expensive. The engineers’ challenge was to refine this complex and expansive steel façade structure to make it simpler and less costly to construct.
By applying an optimisation routine based on the theory of electrical repulsion engineers were able to refine the design so more panels were the same area and more supporting members were the same length.
The engineers created an algorithmic software script that ascribed to each nodal point in the facade a simulated electrical charge. Following the principle of electric repulsion, the nodes ‘repelled’ each other until they were evenly distributed, thus creating steel members of a standardised length.
A second algorithm was then used to push nodes towards areas of high stress, thus tuning the structure to the forces flowing within it, making it more structurally efficient.
Using digital intelligence to identify lines of principle stress in a structure.
For the competition-winning design of the new Greenland National Gallery the RCD group developed a reinforced concrete slab solution that looked original and striking while also being more energy efficient than a conventional reinforced concrete flat slab. The engineering design was based on extensive research into mapping stress flows through flat plate structures, using advanced digital tools. The concept uses new research into the actual stress flows through a flat plate structure and also revisits work from the early 1950’s by the great Pier Luigi Nervi.
Pier Luigi Nervi famously expressed the lines of principle stress in the reinforced concrete floor slabs of the Gatti Wool Factory. When he analysed the stress vector field, he used an intuitive approach based on trial and error.
The engineering team wrote a computer script to map stress flow pathways accurately and comprehensively. By mapping the principle stress vector field of a flat concrete plate with support locations based on the positions of columns in the building frame they were able to design a precisely calibrated slab, where slab thickness varies according to the structural requirement. When the stress flow paths are expressed in reinforced concrete they create elegant, curved, ribbed structures.
Computational analysis optimises uniquely curved form
D-Pod is a multi-use temporary grid shell structure. The architect’s original design (created using parametric software) posited each member as both curving and twisting. However, elements are often easier to fabricate if they are curved in one direction only. Connection detailing is also easier to standardise and therefore less costly if the curvature occurs only along one plane.
The engineering team created a digital tool to reveal the lines of principal curvature in real time to the designer. The architect was able to assess the curve network aesthetically before deciding on a final surface form.
Applying this curvature network constraint early made it easier to remove the twist effect and simplify connections once the design was finalised.
To make the shape of the grid shell more structurally efficient, the engineers morphed the underlying surface into a new position using a self-written script that integrated with the parametric software. Applying the principal curvature tool from the previous exercise to each new surface ensured the resulting structure was buildable.
The new town hall for Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, is a structure composed of 13 intersection boxes, the largest of which is a 60m tall tower comprising the main council
chamber and 37m high lightweight glazed façade. A deep roof structure incorporating a staircase to take visitors to a viewing arcHitect platform was required and as a result the
RCD team developed a tool for finding the most efficient way of fitting structure to the irregular volume of the roof void.
As well as providing support against wind and snow loading, the roof serves to prop the high side walls and huge glazed façade allowing lateral forces to be transferred to the stability core at the rear of the structure.
The tool that was developed used a routine that served to release a specified number of nodes into the volume. Each node is then given a simulated electrical charge so that they repel each other. When the nodes find an equilibrium position they are all an equal distance apart and members are drawn between adjacent points. As such a triangulated structure is derived where all members are of equal length. Engineering judgment was then used to refine the structure in areas of high or low structural density.
Algorithm mimics natural selection to evolve optimal structure.
The new town hall for Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, is a structure composed of 13 intersecting boxes, each of which cantilevers a considerable distance from inset columns at ground floor level. The side walls of each box are blank and therefore provided the opportunity to hide the arcHitect supporting cantilevering trussed frames.
The RCD group used the theory of genetic design to evolve and engineering solution that went beyond the traditional structural typology of a truss to deliver a more
The genetic algorithm was originally developed by John Holland in the 1960s and is a computer simulation of Darwinian evolution.
The engineers’ genetic algorithm solver initiated a population of possible truss arrangements which were assessed against a performance-related fitness criterion – in this case the deflection of the trussed frame. The resulting solution, which could not have been intuited using guesswork or traditional engineering assumptions, is the best optimised solution that effectively reduces deflection.